ESL Term:

Monitor Model

ESL/EFL Glossary: A Guide to applied linguistics terminology.


Back to ESL Resources | Back to Glossary



monitor model: A model of second language acquisition/learning developed by Krashen and based on several hypothesis: the acquisition-learning hypothesis, monitor hypothesis, input hypothesis, natural order hypothesis, and affective filter hypothesis. Essentially, adults have two ways to internalize a language. One is through a conscious effort called learning and the other is through a subconscious effort called acquisition. Fluency is a result of language acquisition, not any conscious effort to learn. Learning is only useful to 'monitor' our output and make some corrections. But because this is a only a minor benefit, acquisition is far more important to learning. Language acquisition will occur if comprehensible input is given to a learner and their affective filter is down. One controversial assertion of this model is that learning and acquisition are mutually exclusive; learning cannot become acquisition over time.